Citation Styles

Prepared by Muhamad Azmil Ramli | Coordinated by Mohd Ikhwan Ismail

What is citation?
A citation is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again.

It’s important to cite sources you used in your research for several reasons:

  • To show your reader you’ve done proper research by listing sources you used to get your information
  • To be a responsible scholar by giving credit to other researchers and acknowledging their ideas
  • To avoid plagiarism by quoting words and ideas used by other authors
  • To allow your reader to track down the sources you used by citing them accurately in your paper by way of footnotes, a bibliography or reference list

NOTE: List of these samples were taken from other websites. However, we still encourage the students to refer some guide books such below (available in our collection):

Cite right : a quick guide to citation styles–MLA, APA, Chicago, the sciences, professions, and more / Charles Lipson ~ KRISALIS & eBrary

Cite them right : the essential guide to referencing and plagiarism / Richard Pears and Graham Shields ~ KRISALIS

Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism (2nd Edition) ~ eBrary

CLICK HERE: Flipping Book

APA

Book

Elements

Example

Link

Author (Year). Title. Place Published: Publisher. Alverez, A. (1970). The savage god: A study of suicide. New York: Random House.Garner, B. A. (2003). Garner’s Modern American Usage. New York: Oxford University Press. http://webster.commnet.edu/apa/book.htm
Author(s) or editor(s), (date) of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher. Kidder, T. (1981). The soul of a new machine. Boston: Little, Brown & Company. http://www.library.cornell.edu/resrch/citmanage/apa
Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle of book. edition. Place of Publication: Publisher. Ermann, M. D., Williams, M. B., & Shauf, M. S. (Eds.). (1997). Computers, ethics, and society. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. http://libguides.dixie.edu/content.php?pid=5025&sid=44936

Electronic Book

Elements

Example

Link

Author. (Year of Publication). Title of the book: Subtitle of the book. Place of publication: Publisher. URL Kornblum, W. (2002). At sea in the city: New York from the water’s edge. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books. Retrieved from http://www.workman.com/algonquin/ http://www.umuc.edu/library/libhow/apa_examples.cfm#intext
Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle of book. edition. City of Publication, State: Publisher. (Looks like print if retrieved from a database) Roush, C. (1999). Inside Home Depot: How one company revolutionized an industry through the relentless pursuit of growth. New York, NY: Jossey-Bass. http://libguides.dixie.edu/content.php?pid=5025&sid=44936
Author, A. A. (Date). Book title [E-reader version, if applicable]. doi:10.XXXXAuthor, A. A. (Date). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book [E-reader version, if applicable] (pp. xxx-xxx).
 doi:10.xxxxxxxxx
O’Keefe, E. (2006). Egoism and the crisis in Western values. Retrieve from http://www.ebookstore.tanddiff.co.uk/html/index.aspOchoa, S. (2004). A history of nerve functions: From animal spirits to molecular mechanisms [ebrary Reader version]. Retrieved from  http://www.ebrary.com/corp/ http://nova.campusguides.com/content.php?pid=114919&sid=992738

Journal Article

Elements

Example

Link

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Name of Journal, volume(issue), pages. Hise, G. (1993). Home building and industrial decentralization in Los Angeles. Journal of Urban History, 19(6), 95-125. http://libguides.dixie.edu/content.php?pid=5025&sid=513727
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1996). Title of journal article. Title of journal: Subtitle of journal, volume number (issue number), first page-last page. Chomsky, N., Halle, M., & Harris, Z. (1960). Toward a generative model of Pig Latin syntax. Pigology: Current issues in Pig Latin research, 26 (2), 247-289. http://linguistics.byu.edu/faculty/henrichsenl/apa/APA06.html
Author, A. A.. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal or journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. Abb, J. (2010). An interdisciplinary approach to preparing early intervention professionals: A university and community collaborative initiative. Teacher Education and Special Education,33(2), 131-142. doi:10.1177/0888406409357546 http://nova.campusguides.com/content.php?pid=114919&sid=992736

 Electronic Journal Article

Elements

Example

Link

author(s), date of publication, article title, journal title, volume number, issue number (if applicable), and page numbers.  Journal article from a subscription database (no DOI)Colvin, G. (2008, July 21). Information worth billions. Fortune, 158(2), 73-79. Retrieved from Business Source Complete, EBSCO. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.comJournal article, one author, accessed online

Ku, G. (2008). Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation of commitment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(2), 221-232. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.08.002

 

http://www.library.cornell.edu/resrch/citmanage/apa
Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Name of Journal, volume(issue), pages. Retrieved from complete URL. Banham, G. (2001). Transcendental philosophy and artificail life. Cultural Machine, 3. Retrieved from http://www.culturemachine.net/index.php/cm/article/view/286271 http://libguides.dixie.edu/content.php?pid=5025&sid=513727
Author’s. (Date of publication). Article title. Journal title,Volume(issue no), pages.  Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36. http://library.concordia.ca/help/howto/apa.php#online

Conference Paper / Proceeding

Elements

Example

Link

Authoauther, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of paper. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of conference held in place and dates of conference (pp. xx-yy pages of paper). Location: Publisher. Prayag, I. L., Ramjee, R. (2009) The impact of Newcastle disease control on smallholder poultry production in Mauritius. In R. G. Alsers, P. B. Spadbrow, & M. P. Young (Eds.), Village chickens, poverty alleviation and the sustainable control of Newcastle disease: Proceedings of an international conference held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 5-7 October 2005 (pp. 132-134). Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. http://libguides.jcu.edu.au/content.php?pid=82408&sid=1127441
Author of  Paper, A., & Author of Paper, B. (Year, Month date). Title of paper. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor. Title of Published Proceedings. Paper presented at Title of Conference: Subtitle of Conference, Location (inclusive page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher. Wilkinson, R. (1999). Sociology as a marketing feast. In M. Collis, L. Munro, & S. Russell (Eds.), Sociology for the New Millennium. Paper presented at The Australian Sociological Association, Monash University, Melbourne, 7-10 December (pp. 281-289). Churchill, VIC: Celts. http://libguides.reynolds.edu/content.php?pid=143373&sid=1220383
Author of  Paper, A., & Author of Paper, B. (Year, Month date). Title of paper. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor. Title of Published Proceedings. Paper presented at Title of Conference: Subtitle of Conference, Location (inclusive page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher. Rowling, L. (1993, September). Schools and grief: How does Australia compare to the United States. In Wandarna coowar: Hidden grief. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 8th National Conference of the National Association for Loss and Grief (Australia), Yeppoon, Queensland (pp. 196-201). Turramurra, NSW: National Association for Loss and Grief. http://libguides.murdoch.edu.au/content.php?pid=63242&sid=624784

Thesis

Elements

Example

Link

Author, date of publication, title, and institution (if you accessed the manuscript copy from the university collections) Young, R. F. (2007). Crossing boundaries in urban ecology: Pathways to sustainable cities (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 327681) http://www.library.cornell.edu/resrch/citmanage/apa
Author. (Year of publication). Title of thesis, (type of thesis, Institution). URL Fisher, M. J. (2005). Design system for a fluid domain assembly (Master’s thesis, Bringham Young University). Retrieved from http://imechanica.org/files/HyperMeshTclMySQL.pdf  http://nova.campusguides.com/content.php?pid=114919&sid=992778
Autho  r, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of thesis (Type of thesis). Institution, Location. Ward,  I. (1998). Sedimentary history of the Pandora wreck and surrounds (Masters dissertation). James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.  http://libguides.jcu.edu.au/content.php?pid=82408&sid=1181789
Author, (year of publication). Title thesis (type of thesis). Cooley, T. (2009). Design, development, and implementation of a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN): The Hartford Job Corps Academy case study (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 3344745)

 Newspaper Article

Elements

Example

Link

Editor (Year, Date). Title. Newspaper Name, Pages. Poirot, C. (2004, March 17). HIV prevention pill goes beyond ‘morning after’. The Hartford Courant, pp. F1, F6. http://webster.commnet.edu/apa/nobyline.htm
author(s), (date of publication), article title, journal title, volume number, issue number (if applicable), and page numbers. Delaney, K. J., Karnitschnig, M., & Guth, R. A. (2008, May 5). Microsoft ends pursuit of Yahoo, reassesses its online options. The Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A12. http://www.library.cornell.edu/resrch/citmanage/apa
Author (year, month day). Article title. Newspaper title, page. Retrieved from URL Boyd, G. M.  (1987, June 13). Raze Berlin Wall, Reagan urges Soviet. New York Times, p.3. Retrieved from http://www.proquest.com/en-US/catalogs/databases/detail/pq-hist-news.shtml http://nova.campusguides.com/content.php?pid=114919&sid=992736

 Webpage / Website / Internet

Elements

Example

Link

Author. (Date of publication). title. Retrieved date, URL National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2008). Biofuels. Retrieved May 6, 2008, from http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html http://www.library.cornell.edu/resrch/citmanage/apa
Website Author, A.A. (Date of publication). Title of website. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/“Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e.g., Wikis). (APA, 2010, p. 192) Brewster, C., & Fager, J. (2000). Increasing student engagement and motivation: From time-on-task to homework. Retrieved from: http://educationnorthwest.org/webfm_send/452 http://libguides.jcu.edu.au/content.php?pid=82408&sid=1105612
Author last name, first initial. (Year). Title of dissertation. Retrieved from Dissertations and Theses database. (AAT xxxxxxx)
Johnson, S. (2004). Financial variables and merger premiums: Evidence from bank mergers. Retrieved from Dissertations and Theses database.(AAT 3025476)

 

http://www.nova.edu/library/dils/lessons/apa/print.htm

 

HARVARD

Book

Elements

Example

Link

Author, AA, Author, BB & Author, CC year of publication, Title: subtitle, Publisher, Place of publication. Gilbert, R & Gilbert, P 1998, Masculinity goes to school, Allen & Unwin, St. Leonards, N.S.W.Holmes, D, Hughes, KP & Julian, R 2003, Australian sociology: a changing society, Pearson Education, Frenchs Forest, N.S.W. http://libguides.jcu.edu.au/content.php?pid=82408&sid=774832
Authors, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition. (only include this if not the first edition) Place: Publisher. Adams, R. J.,Weiss, T.D. and Coatie, J.J., 2010. The World Health Organisation, its history and impact. London: Perseus. http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm
Author, year of publication, Title, place of publication. Holt, DH 1997, Management principles and practices, Prentice-Hall, Sydney. http://guides.is.uwa.edu.au/content.php?pid=43218&sid=318555

Electronic Book

Elements

Example

Link

Author, AA year of publication, ‘Title of chapter’, in Title: subtitle, Publisher, Place of publication, pp. xx-yy, viewed Date Month Year, DOI XXX, <URL>. Longley, L 2008, ‘Rabbit anaesthesia’, in Anaesthesia of exotic pets, W.B. Saunders, Edinburgh, pp. 36-58, viewed 12 September 2010, DOI 10.1016/B978-0-7020-2888-5.50004-6, <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B8MVJ-4W4CG7C-N/2/c14135561aff0f37b556a25b8acedf67&gt;. http://libguides.jcu.edu.au/content.php?pid=82408&sid=774832
Author, Year, Title of book. [e-book] Place of publication: Publisher. Followed by Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk&gt; [Accessed date]. Fishman, R., 2005. The rise and fall of suburbia. [e-book] Chester: Castle Press. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk&gt; [Accessed 5 June 2005]. http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm
Author, (edition) Year, Title, e-book, place of publication. [Accessed date] Aghion, P & Durlauf, S (eds.) 2005, Handbook of economic growth, Elsevier, Amsterdam. Available from: Elsevier books. [4 November 2004]. http://guides.is.uwa.edu.au/content.php?pid=43218&sid=318555

Journal Article

Elements

Example

Link

Author, AA year of publication, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, vol. volume number, no. issue number, pp. xx-xx. Rogers, G 2009, ‘Reflections on teaching remote and isolated children’, Education in Rural Australia, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 65-8. http://libguides.jcu.edu.au/content.php?pid=82408&sid=772704
Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers. Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an brief look. Political Science Quarterly, 42(6), p.564. http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm
Authors, year of publication, article  title, journal title, volume, issue number, pages. Conley, TG & Galeson, DW 1998, ‘Nativity and wealth in mid-nineteenth century cities’, Journal of Economic History, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 468-493. http://guides.is.uwa.edu.au/content.php?pid=43218&sid=318559

Electronic Journal Article

Elements

Example

Link

Author, AA year of publication, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, vol. volume, no. issue number, pp. xx-xx. viewed Date Month Year, <URL>. Vessenes, PM 2003, ‘The secrets of managing your time’, Journal of Financial Planning , vol.16, no. 8, pp. 30–32. viewed 20 November 2009, <http://www.fpajournal.org/&gt;. http://libguides.jcu.edu.au/content.php?pid=82408&sid=772704
Author, year, title article, journal title, volume, issue no, pages. [view date month year] Liveris, A 2011, ‘Ethics as a strategy’, Leadership Excellence, vol. 28, no. 2, pp.17-18. Available from: Proquest [23 June 2011]. http://guides.is.uwa.edu.au/content.php?pid=43218&sid=318559
author/ editor name(s)  date of publication, title of e-book , format, accessed day month year (the date of viewing),  <URL or Internet address (between pointed brackets) > Lloyd, CB (ed.) 2005, Growing up global: The changing transitions to adulthood in developing countries, e-book, accessed 5 May 2007, <http://www.nap.edu/books/11174/html/index.html&gt;. http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/onlib/ref_elec1.html#elec11

Conference Paper / Proceeding

Elements

Example

Link

Paper author, AA year of publication, ‘Title of paper’, paper presented at Name of conference, Place of conference. date-date Month Abbott, K & Seymour, J 1997, ‘Trapping the papaya fruit fly in North Queensland’, paper presented at the Australian Entomological Society conference, Melbourne, 28-30 September. http://libguides.jcu.edu.au/content.php?pid=82408&sid=775553
Author, Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if availalble. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk&gt; [Accessed date] Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an in depth look. Political Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42 (6), Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk&gt; [Accessed 12 June 2005]. http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm
Author, Year, article title, journal title, edition. Publisher, place of publication, pages. Riley, D 1992, ‘Industrial relations in Australian education’, in Contemporary Australasian industrial relations: proceedings of the sixth AIRAANZ conference, ed. D. Blackmur, AIRAANZ, Sydney, pp. 124-140. http://guides.is.uwa.edu.au/content.php?pid=43218&sid=318559

Thesis

Elements

Example

Link

Author, AA Year of preparation of thesis, ‘Title of thesis’, award, Institution issuing degree, Location of institution. Ward, I 1998, ‘Sedimentary history of the Pandora wreck and surrounds’, M.A. thesis, James Cook University, Townsville. http://libguides.jcu.edu.au/content.php?pid=82408&sid=774845
Author, Year of publication. Title of dissertation. Level. Official name of University. Richmond, J., 2005. Customer expectations in the world of electronic banking: a case study of the Bank of Britain. Ph. D. Anglia Ruskin University. http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm
Author, year, dissertation title, institution, publisher. May, B 2007, A survey of radial velocities in the zodiacal dust cloud. Bristol UK, Canopus Publishing. http://guides.is.uwa.edu.au/content.php?pid=43218&sid=318559

Newspaper Article

Elements

Example

Link

Author(s) of article, initials Year of publication, ‘Title of article’, Title of newspaper, Day month, Page number(s). Simpson, L 1997, ‘Tasmania’s railway goes private’, Australian Financial Review, 13 October, p. 10. http://libguides.jcu.edu.au/content.php?pid=82408&sid=774869#2498642
Author, Initials., Year. Title of article or column header. Full Title of Newspaper, Day and month before page numbers and column line. Slapper, G., 2005. Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers. The Times, 3 Sep. p.4b. http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm
Author, Year, article title, newspaper title day month, page number. Ionesco, J 2001, ‘Federal election: new Chip in politics’, The Advertiser 23 October, p. 10. http://guides.is.uwa.edu.au/content.php?pid=43218&sid=318559

Webpage / Website / Internet

Elements

Example

Link

Author (person or organisation) Year (site created or revised), Name (and place if applicable) of sponsor of the site, date month year of viewing the site, <URL>. National Library of Australia 2010, National Library of Australia, Canberra, viewed 30 March 2010, <http://www.nla.gov.au&gt;. http://libguides.jcu.edu.au/content.php?pid=82408&sid=774836#2498546
Authorship or Source, Year. Title of web document or web page. [type of medium] (date of update if available) Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date]. NHS Evidence, 2003. National Library of Guidelines. [online] Available at: <http://www.library.nhs.uk/guidelinesFinder&gt; [Accessed 10 October 2009 ]. http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm
Author, Title. Available at: <URL>. [Accessed Date]. Jones, MD n.d., Commentary on indigenous housing initiatives. Available from: <http://www.architecture.com.au&gt;. [6 June 2009]. http://guides.is.uwa.edu.au/content.php?pid=43218&sid=318559

CHICAGO

Book

Elements

Example

Link

Author, title, (place of publication: publisher,year), page. Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Difference (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 65. http://www.umuc.edu/library/libhow/chicago_examples.cfm#books
Author, edition.year. title. Place of publication:Publisher. Beckham, Todd, ed. 1951. The soccer chronicles. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://www.wikihow.com/Cite-Sources-in-Chicago-Manual-of-Style-Format
Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher City: Publisher Name, Year Published. Brown, Dan. The DaVinci Code. New York: Scholastic, 2004. http://www.bibme.org/citation-guide/Chicago/book

Electronic Book

Elements

Example

Link

Author, Title, (Publisher,Year), accessed date, year , URL. Thomas H. Davenport and John C. Beck, The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business (Harvard Business School Press, 2001), accessed January 4, 2011, NetLibrary e-book. http://www.umuc.edu/library/libhow/chicago_examples.cfm#books
Author, Edition. Year. Title Place of Publication: Publisher.URL . Kamp, John C. and Alison Norris, eds. 1987. The lawnmowing guide San Diego: Green Press. http://greenpress.com/lawnmowing/. http://www.wikihow.com/Cite-Sources-in-Chicago-Manual-of-Style-Format
Author First Name/Initial Surname, Book Title: Subtitle (Place of Publication:  Publisher, Year), Format, page #. Hal Hellman, Great Feuds in Science: Ten of the Liveliest Disputes Ever (New York: John Wiley, 1998), Net Library e-book, 52. http://rdc.libguides.com/content.php?pid=47057&sid=359950

Journal Article

Elements

Example

Link

Author, article title,journal article volume (year): pages John Maynard Smith, “The Origin of Altruism,” Nature 393 (1998): 639. http://www.umuc.edu/library/libhow/chicago_examples.cfm#books
Author, Year, Article number. Journal title volume number:pages  Fargo, Peter Paul. 2007. The facts of life. Philosophy 126:450-22. http://www.wikihow.com/Cite-Sources-in-Chicago-Manual-of-Style-Format
Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Name Volume Number (Year Published): Page Numbers Smith, John. “Studies in pop rocks and Coke.” Weird Science 12 (2009): 78-93. http://www.bibme.org/citation-guide/Chicago/journal

Electronic Journal Article

Elements

Example

Link

Author, Article Title, Journal Title Volume number,issue number(Year): pages, accessed date, URL William Maiben, “A Tombeau for John Lennon, 1940-1980,” Perspectives of New Music 19, nos 1/2 (Autumn 1980-Summer 1981): 533, accessed September 5, 2009, http://www.jstor.org/stable/832614. http://www.umuc.edu/library/libhow/chicago_examples.cfm#books
Author. Year. Article Title . Journal title  Volume, issue number (accessed date), URL Hennessy, Thomas W., Craig W. Hedberg, Laurence Slutsker, Karen E. White, John M. Besser-Wiek, Michael E. Moen, John Feldman, William W. Coleman, Larry M. Edmonson, Kristine L. MacDonald, and Michael T. Osterholm. 2002. A national outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis infections from ice cream. The New England Journal of Medicine 287, no. 5 (February 6), http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/334/20/1281. http://www.wikihow.com/Cite-Sources-in-Chicago-Manual-of-Style-Format
Author. Article Title, Journal title (year of publication): pages. URL Smith, John. “Studies in pop rocks and Coke.” Weird Science 12 (2009): 78-93. http://www.weirdscience.org/articles/id=1212 (accessed February 21, 2009). http://www.bibme.org/citation-guide/Chicago/journal

Conference Paper / Proceeding

Elements

Example

Link

Author Surname, Name. “Title of Paper.” InConference Proceedings name – in italics. Place of publication: Name of Publisher, Year of publication. Mick Common, “The Role of Economics in Natural Heritage Decision Making,” in Heritage Economics: Challenges for Heritage Conservation and Sustainable Development in the 21st Century: Proceedings of the International Society for Ecological Economics Conference, Canberra, 4 July 2000 (Canberra: Australian Heritage Commission, 2001), 22. http://www.lib.monash.edu.au/tutorials/citing/chicago-conferences.html
Author, “Title of paper” (conference proceeding name, place of publication, publisher, year of publication). Rachel Adelman, “ ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition” (paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24, 2009). http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
Conference Paper in Print ProceedingsAuthor of  Paper, A., and B. Author of Paper. Year. “Title of Paper.” In Title of Published Proceedings: Subtitle of Conference, Location, Date, inclusive page numbers. Place of publication: PublisherConference Paper fom the InternetAuthor of  Paper, A., and B. Author of Paper. Year. “Title of Paper.” Paper presented at Title of Conference: Subtitle of Conference, Location, Date. doi:10.XXX/XXXXX.XX

 

Singh, Kamal, and Gary Best. 2004. “Film Induced Tourism: Motivations of Visitors to the Hobbiton Movie Set as Featured in ‘The Lord of the Rings’.” In Proceedings of the 1st International Tourism and Media Conference, Melbourne, 2004, 98-111. Melbourne: Tourism Research Unit, Monash University.Beckermann, M. 2010. “Regeneration Following Traumatic Brain Injury: Signals, Signposts and Scaffolds.” Paper presented at the Biomedical Sciences and Engineering Conference (BSEC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, May 25-26, 2010. doi: 10.1109/BSEC.2010.5510841. http://libguides.murdoch.edu.au/content.php?pid=156934&sid=1329012http://libguides.murdoch.edu.au/content.php?pid=156934&sid=1329012

Thesis

Elements

Example

Link

Author, dissertation title, (institution, year), accessed date month, year, source. Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty,” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008), accessed October 12, 2010, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (AAT 3300426). http://www.umuc.edu/library/libhow/chicago_examples.cfm#books
Author, year. Title in italics.[Degree] dissertation, school. Ann Arbor: ProQuest/UMI, date. (Publication No. [number].) Crowe, Byron Dan. 2010. I ain’t fattening frogs for snakes: An inquiry into the application of creativity research to teaching practice. PhD dissertation, California Institute of Integral Studies. Ann Arbor: ProQuest/UMI. (Publication No. AAT 3411606.) http://library.ciis.edu/information/handouts/citing%20dissertations.htm#no_3
UnpublishedAuthor, A. A. Year. “Title of Thesis: Subtitle.” Unpublished thesis type, University. 

Published

Author, A. A. Year. Title of Thesis: Subtitle. Place of publication: Publisher.

From a full text database

Author, A. A. Year. “Title of Thesis: Subtitle.” Database Name (Identifier if given), Internet address.

Hosking, Barry C. 2010. “The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes in Sheep with the Amino-acetonitrile Derivative, Monepantel with a Particular Focus on Australia and New Zealand.” PhD diss., Ghent University.Yen, Hung-Hsun. 2009. Modulation of Immune Responses to DNA Vaccines in Sheep: May a Particular Type of Immune Memory Induced during Vaccination Still be Maintained During Infection? Saarbrücken, Germany: LAP Lambert Academic.Stewart, Meredith. 2005. “An Investigation into Aspects of the Replication of Jembrana Disease Virus.” Australasian Digital Theses Program (WMU2005.1222), http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20051222.104106. http://libguides.murdoch.edu.au/content.php?pid=156934&sid=1329021

Newspaper Article

Elements

Example

Link

Author, article title, newspaper title,date of publication,year, section,edition. William S. Niederkorn, “A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’ Discovery,” New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition. http://www.umuc.edu/library/libhow/chicago_examples.cfm#books
Author, article title. Newspaper title, month date, section, edition.        Lachmund, Miles S. 2002. German chef recreates childhood soup for neighbors. New York Times, June 20, Food section, Midwest edition. http://www.wikihow.com/Cite-Sources-in-Chicago-Manual-of-Style-Format
Author, article title. Newspaper title, month date,year. Smith, John. “Steelers win Super Bowl XLIII.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 2, 2009. http://www.bibme.org/citation-guide/Chicago/newspaper

Webpage / Website / Internet

Elements

Example

Link

“Title”, Name of web page, last modified, date access. URL “Google Privacy Policy,” Google, last modified March 11, 2009, accessed July 13, 2009, http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html. http://www.umuc.edu/library/libhow/chicago_examples.cfm#websites
Title, Name of web page, last modified, date access. URL Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. Evanston Public Library strategic plan, 2000–2010: A decade of outreach. Evanston Public Library. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html. http://www.wikihow.com/Cite-Sources-in-Chicago-Manual-of-Style-Format
Last Name, First Name. “Page Title.” Website Title. Web Address (retrieved Date Accessed). Smith, John. “Obama inaugurated as President.” CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/01/21/obama_inaugurated/index.html (accessed February 1, 2009). http://www.bibme.org/citation-guide/Chicago/website

MLA

Book

Elements

Example

Link

Author’s Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Print. Ermann, M . David, Mary B. Williams, and Michael S. Shauf, eds. Computers, Ethics, and Society. New York: Oxford UP, 1997. Print. http://libguides.dixie.edu/content.php?pid=5025&sid=44873
Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication. Baker, Nancy L., and Nancy Huling. A Research Guide for Undergraduate Students: English and American Literature. 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2006. Print. http://libguides.jcu.edu.au/content.php?pid=82408&sid=611408
Last name, first name format. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication. Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Boston: Allyn, 2000. Print. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/06/

Electronic Book

Elements

Example

Link

Author’s Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Name of Database. Place of access. Web. Date of access. Roush, Chris. Inside Home Depot: How One Company Revolutionized an Industry through the Relentless Pursuit of Growth. New York: McGraw, 1999. ebrary. Web. 4 Dec. 2005. http://libguides.dixie.edu/content.php?pid=5025&sid=44873
Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, copyright date. Source of eBook. Web. Date of Access. Welch, Kathleen E. Electric Rhetoric: Classical Rhetoric, Oralism, and a New Literacy. Cambridge: MIT, 1999. netLibrary. Web. 21 Oct. 2004. http://guides.stedwards.edu/content.php?pid=50851&sid=624317
Author, title of book: subtitle of book. Place of publication: publisher, year . source eBook. Web. Access date. Knutson, Joan. Project Management for Business Professionals: A Comprehensive Guide. New York: Wiley, 2001. Ebook Library. Web. 19 January 2010. http://libguides.is.uwa.edu.au/content.php?pid=52190&sid=737169

Journal Article

Elements

Example

Link

Author’s Last Name, First Name Middle Name or Initial. “Title of Article.” Name of Journal Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. Print. Silverman, Rebecca, and Sara Hines. “The Effects of Multimedia-Enchanced Instruction on the Vocabulary of English-Language Learners and Non-English-Language Learners in Pre-Kindergarten Through Second Grade.” Journal of Educational Psychology 101.2 (2009): 305-14. Print.  http://libguides.dixie.edu/content.php?pid=5025&sid=331255
Author of Article. “Name of article.” Name of Scholarly Journal Series Type/Number Volume Number.Issue Number (Year of Publication): page numbers. Field, Samantha. “Dark Matter and Andromeda.” Cosmological Sciences 23.5 (2003): 156-189. http://www.easybib.com/reference/guide/mla/journal
Author, “article title”. Publisher Volume number. Issue (Year publication): pages. Piper, Andrew. “Rethinking the Print Object: Goethe and the Book of Everything.” PMLA 121.1 (2006): 124-38. Print. http://libguides.is.uwa.edu.au/content.php?pid=52190&sid=737170

Electronic Journal Article

Elements

Example

Link

Author’s Last Name, First Name Middle Name or initial. “Title of Article.” Name of Journal Vol.Issue (Year): pages. Web. Date of access. Barnett, W. Steven, Cynthia Lamy, and Kwanghee Jung. “The Effects of State Prekindergarten Programs on Young Children’s School Readiness in Five States.” The National Institute for Early Education Research Dec. 2005: 1-21. Rutgers University. Web. 6 May 2009 http://libguides.dixie.edu/content.php?pid=5025&sid=331255
Author of Article. “Name of article.” Name of Scholarly Journal Series Type/Number Volume Number.Issue Number (Year of Publication): Page numbers. Date Accessed <URL>. Field, Samantha. “Dark Matter and Andromeda.” Cosmological Sciences 23.5 (2003): 156-189. 12 Oct. 2004 <http://www.cosmoscience.com&gt;. http://www.easybib.com/reference/guide/mla/journal
Author. “article title. “journal article volume.issue (year of publication): pages. Web. Date of access. Sie, I., M. Thorstad and B.M. Andersen. “Infection Control and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureu in Nursing Homes in Oslo.” Journal of Hospital Infection 70.3 (2008): 235-240. ScienceDirect. Web. 5 Aug. 2009. http://libguides.is.uwa.edu.au/content.php?pid=52190&sid=737170

Conference Paper / Proceeding

Elements

Example

Link

PrintAuthor last name, Author First Name or initials. “Title of the Paper.” Title of Conference Proceedings . Ed. Editor’s First Name Editor’s Last Name. Place: Publisher, year. pages of paper. Print.Electronic

Author last name, Author First Name or initials. “Title of the Paper.” Title of Conference Proceedings . Ed. Editor’s First Name Editor’s Last Name. Month Day Year of Publication. Web. Day Month Year accessed.

 

Woods, Randall B. “The Rhetoric of Dissent: J. William Fulbright, Vietnam, and the Crisis of International Liberalism.” Presidential Rhetoric; Critical Reflections on the Cold War Linking Rhetoric and History, 4th Annual Conference, 1988. Ed. M.J. Medhurst and H.W. Brands. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2000. 187-208. Print.Maness, Jack and Sarah Naper. “Hurry! Hurry! r u dum? *#%@!” Virtual Reference Desk Conference 2005. 20 January 2006. Web. 26 April 2006.

 

http://libinfo.uark.edu/reference/citations/mla.asp#conference
Author. “title of paper. “title of conference proceedings, date of publication. Edition.place of publication, volume. Pages. print Mann, Jill. “Chaucer and the ‘Woman Question.'” This Noble Craft: Proceedings of the Tenth Research Symposium of the Dutch and Belgian University Teachers of Old and Middle English and Historical Linguistics, Utrecht, 19-20 January 1989. Ed. Erik Kooper. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1991. 173-88. Print  http://libguides.is.uwa.edu.au/content.php?pid=52190&sid=737175
 Conference Paper in Print ProceedingsAuthor of Paper, and Author of Paper. “Title of Paper”. Title of Published Proceedings: Proceedings of  the Title of Conference, Location, Date. Ed. Editors Names. Place of publication: Publisher, Year. page numbers.

Conference Paper fom the Internet

Author of Paper, and Author of Paper. “Title of Paper”. Title of Published Proceedings: Proceedings of  the Title of Conference, Location, Date. Ed. Editors Names. Place of publication: Publisher, Year. page numbers. Internet. Date of access.

 

Mann, Jill. “Chaucer and the ‘Woman Question.'” This Noble Craft: Proceedings of the Tenth Research Symposium of the Dutch and Belgian University Teachers of Old and Middle English and Historical Linguistics, Utrecht, 19-20 January 1989. Ed. Erik Kooper. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1991. 173-88.Zheng, Hongyan, Xiao Yongmei, and Li Zhe. “Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Efficacy of English Acqusition in CALL Environment.” International Conference on Computer Technology and Development, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, 13-15 November 2009. Vol. 2. IEEE Computer Society, 2009. 494-496. Internet. 3 Jul. 2010.

 

http://libguides.murdoch.edu.au/content.php?pid=109320&sid=823085

Thesis

Elements

Example

Link

PrintAuthor last name, Author First Name or initials. “Title of thesis or dissertation.” Diss. / MA Thesis / MS Thesis. University, Place, year. Print.Electronic

Author last name, Author First Name or initials. “Title of thesis or dissertation.” Diss. / MA Thesis / MS Thesis. University, Place, year. Database Name.Web. Day Month Year accessed.

 

Zeller, Gary. “‘If I ain’t one, you won’t find another one here’: Race, identity, citizenship, and land, the African Creek experience in the Indian Territory and Oklahoma, 1830-1910.” Diss. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 2003. Print.Zeller, Gary. “‘If I ain’t one, you won’t find another one here’: Race, identity, citizenship, and land, the African Creek experience in the Indian Territory and Oklahoma, 1830-1910.” Diss. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 2003. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Web. 26 April 2006. http://libinfo.uark.edu/reference/citations/mla.asp#conference
Author. Thesis title. Type of dissertation. Name of university, year. Bile, Jeffry. Ecology, Feminism, and a Revised Critical Rhetoric Toward a Dialectical Partnership. Diss. Ohio University, 2005. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2006. AAT 3191791. Print. http://libguides.is.uwa.edu.au/content.php?pid=52190&sid=737176
Author Surname, First Name. “Title of Dissertation/Thesis.” Description. GrantingUniversity, Year Awarded. Title of Web Site or Database. Medium. Date of Access [Day Month Year]. Shimpalee, Pattama. “The Contribution of Economic and Institutional Factors to Currency Crises: Additional Evidence from Asia, Europe and the Western Hemisphere.” Diss. U of South Carolina, 2004. ProQuest
Dissertations and Theses. Web. 2 Jun. 2009.
http://zu.libguides.com/content.php?pid=162428&sid=1555535

Newspaper Article

Elements

Example

Link

How to cite PRINT NEWSPAPERSAuthor’s Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title Date of Publication, ed., sec.: pages. Print. Brozan, Nadine. “Where Home is a Real Sanctuary.” New York Times 16 June 2002, sec. 11:1+. Print. http://libguides.dixie.edu/content.php?pid=5025&sid=44906
How to cite NEWSPAPERS from a DatabaseAuthor’s Last Name, First Name Middle name or initial. “Article Title.” Newspaper title Date of publication: pages. Name of Database. Web. Date of access. Geracimos, Ann. “Inspiring Students to Learn; Center Prepares Teachers to Take a ‘Hands-on’ Approach in Classroom.” The Washington Times 3 Mar. 2008: n. pag. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 5 May 2009. http://libguides.dixie.edu/content.php?pid=5025&sid=44906
How to cite ONLINE NEWSPAPERSAuthor’s Last Name, First Name Middle name or initial. “Article Title.” Newspaper title. Name of sponsor, date of publication. Web. Date of access. Montgomery, Lori, Amy Goldstein, and William Branigin. “Obama Releases $3.4 Trillion Budget Plan.” The Washington Post. Washington Post, 7 May 2009. Web. 9 May 2009. http://libguides.dixie.edu/content.php?pid=5025&sid=44906
Author of Article. “Name of article.” Name of Newspaper [City Published] Date Published, Edition, Section: Page Number of Article.  

 

Regen, Phil. “The Reign of the Tiger.” The Daily Herald [Chicago] 5 May 2004, 2nd edition: 12+. http://www.easybib.com/reference/guide/mla/newspaper

Webpage / Website / Internet

Elements

Example

Link

Author’s Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. “Title of Content if used only one section of website.” Name of Web page. Name of organizational sponsor (not advertising sponsor), Date published or updated. Web. Day Month Year of Access. Roberts, K. “Global Warming: Utah’s Future Threatens Hotter Temps, Longer and More Severe Droughts.” Department of Atmospheric Sciences. University of Utah, 4 Feb. 2008 Web. 11 May 2009. http://libguides.dixie.edu/content.php?pid=5025&sid=44908
Author(s) of internet article. “Name of internet article.” Name of website. Editor(s) of website. Date of electronic publication. Associated institution. Date of access <URL>. Smith, Fred. “New Football Recruits.” Northwestern Football. Ed. Alex Shokey. 2004. Northwestern University. 6 Jun. 2004 <http://www.football.northwestern.edu/recruits&gt;. http://www.easybib.com/reference/guide/mla/website
 Page Title. Ed. Site Editor First Name Site Editor Last Name (if available). Day Month Year of page date, if known. Web. Day Month Year accessed. <URL in brackets if needed. Rock Art in Arkansas. Ed. George Sabo et. al. 2001. Web. 26 April 2006. <http://rockart.uark.edu/&gt;. http://libinfo.uark.edu/reference/citations/mla.asp#conference

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